This U.S. Department of Justice second edition of the National Protocol for Sexual Assault Medical Forensic Examinations provides detailed guidelines for criminal justice and health care practitioners who respond to the immediate needs of sexual assault victims.
Protect Our Defenders (POD) published "Debunked: Fact-Checking the Pentagon's Claims Regarding Military Justice" after securing Freedom of Information Act information from the Army and Marines and reviewing an Associated Press investigation. Their report reveals that, "contrary to the Pentagon’s claims, civilian prosecutors did not decline many of the cases cited by the Pentagon. POD also found no evidence that any case was prosecuted at the “insistence” of a commander."
This GAO-08-924 report follows up on the 2004 direction Congress gave to the Department of Defense (DOD) to establish a comprehensive policy to prevent and respond to sexual assaults involving servicemembers. Though not required to do so, the Coast Guard established a similar policy. In response to congressional requests and Senate Report No. 110-77, GAO evaluated the extent to which DOD and the Coast Guard complied with the directives.
The Department of Defense reports that only 1 in 4 victims reports sexual assault to military authorities. Service members do not report because of the fear of retaliation from the perpetrator and/or the perpetrator’s friends as well as concern about their careers.
This essay, co-written by the five U.S. military service academy supertintendents, stated: 'Sexual assault on college campuses is a national problem. No campus is immune. It is a challenge at public and private institutions, it plagues small colleges as well as universities with tens of thousands of students, it happens at highly selective colleges and institutions that cater to a local demographic. It also happens at our federal service academies (FSAs).'
Protect Our Defenders developed this data snapshot. In 2014, sexual assault, harassment, and retaliation persisted for men and women service members, with overall no improvements over 2010 levels. Sexual harassment remained commonplace.
Protect Our Defenders, the only United States human rights organization focused on sexual assault in the military, developed this fact sheet derived from 2015 RAND research indicating that the military has failed to address its sexual assault crisis.
address the sexual assault crisis.
The Veterans Access, Choice, and Accountability Act of 2014 (Public Law 113-146) (“Choice Act”) was signed into law August 7, 2014. The Veterans Administration is authorized to counsel and care for military veterans, Reservists and Guard on active duty or active duty for training, and active duty service members who experienced military sexual assault/trauma.
Veterans who may have experienced sexual trauma (MST) while serving in the military may experience mental and physical health conditions, some many years after they leave the military. Veteran MSA/MST survivors can apply for disability compensation for related conditions that occurred during military service.
Military Sexual Trauma (MST) is the Department of Veterans Affairs term used to refer to experiences of sexual assault or repeated, threatening sexual harassment that a veteran experienced during her or his military service.
Today, President Biden will sign an Executive Order to implement historic, bipartisan military justice reforms that significantly strengthen how the military handles sexual assault cases. The Executive Order transfers key decision-making authorities from commanders to specialized, independent military prosecutors in cases of sexual assault, domestic violence, murder, and other serious offenses by amending the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ).
Females have long been viewed as the primary victims of sexual assault but based on a 2014 RAND survey it is estimated that about 9,000 to about 13,000 male servicemembers were sexually assaulted. The House report accompanying the Fiscal Year 2014 National Defense Authorization Act mandated that GAO review DOD's efforts to address sexual assaults of male servicemembers.
According to the Government Account Office: "The Department of Defense (DOD) developed its strategy to prevent sexual assault using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) framework for effective sexual-violence prevention strategies, but DOD does not link activities to desired outcomes or fully identify risk and protective factors. Specifically, DOD's strategy identifies 18 prevention-related activities, but they are not linked to desired outcomes—a step that CDC says is necessary to determine whether efforts are producing the intended effect."
This GAO-08-1146T report is the GAO staff's testimony before the Subcommittee on National Security and Foreign Affairs, Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, House of Representatives regarding the Department of Defense and Coast Guard development of a comprehensive policy to prevent and respond to sexual assault in the military.
Congress mandated that GAO conduct a review of the female-specific health care services provided by DOD to female servicemembers, including the treatment of servicewomen who are
victims of sexual assault.
In September 2012, following investigations for alleged sexual assaults during basic training, an Air Force Commander-directed report made 46 recommendations intended to better prevent sexual assaults during basic training. Congress mandated that GAO review the Air Force's efforts to implement the recommendations and lessons learned to better prevent and respond to sexual assault incidents among the services.
This testimony on military sexual assault by GAO staff was presented before the Subcommittee on National Security and Foreign Affairs, Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, House of Representatives. They concluded it remains impossible to accurately analyze trends or draw conclusions from these data because Department of Defense and the Coast Guard have not yet standardized their respective reporting requirements.
GAO Report 12-03399-54, Healthcare Inspection/Inpatient and Residential Programs
For Female Veterans with Mental Health Conditions Related to Military Sexual Trauma, dated December 5, 2012, provides a review and evaluation of the Department of Veterans Affairs Military Sexual Trauma programs.
This GAO-08-1013T report is the GAO staff's testimony before the Subcommittee on National Security and Foreign Affairs, Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, House of Representatives. In 2004, Congress directed the Department of Defense (DOD) to establish a comprehensive policy to prevent and respond to sexual assaults involving servicemembers. Though not required to do so, the Coast Guard established a similar program. This statement addresses the extent to which DOD and the Coast Guard implemented their sexual assault policies.
In the GAO-12-571R report, GAO noted that prior work on sexual assault in the military resulted in 25 recommendations on various aspects of the Department of Defense’s (DOD) Sexual Assault Prevention and Response (SAPR) program. DOD concurred or partially concurred with all of GAO’s recommendations and has since begun or completed action on each of them. GAO’s analysis shows that DOD fully implemented 13 recommendations and partially implemented the remaining 12 recommendations, which GAO will continue to monitor.
In 2003, Congress directed the Department of Defense to establish programs and to submit annual reports, and although not required, the Coast Guard Academy, within the Department of Homeland Security, has taken similar action. GAO was asked to review sexual harassment and assault programs at the academies.
GAO was asked to address the extent to which (1) the Department of Defense (DOD) conducts oversight of the military services' investigative organizations and (2) the services provide resources for investigations and adjudications of alleged sexual assault incidents.
There has been a near-total absence of justice for survivors of rape and sexual violence in conflict. The authors and contributors of this international Protocol hope that it will be part of a new global effort to shatter the culture of sexual violence impunity and help survivors and deter people from committing sexual violence crimes in conflict.
Protect Our Defenders (POD), a non-profit human rights organization, advocates on behalf of survivors of military sexual assault and rape. They intend to impact enduring change within the military organization and culture through reform of military training, investigation, adjudication, and veteran service systems. POD maintains comprehensive online information resources including facts, policies, legislation, and news about military sexual assault and rape.
RAINN is the nation's largest anti-sexual assault organization. They offer an extensive library of national and state resources including contacts, statistics, recovery information, computer safety, crime reporting, other links and more.
Servicewomen's Action Network (SWAN), is a non-profit social justice organization, advocating on behalf of servicewomen. They intend to impact enduring change within the military and veteran service organizations and culture through reform. SWAN maintains comprehensive online information resources including facts, policies, legislation, and news about issues impacting women who serve in the military.
The President of the United States directed the Secretary of Defense in December 2013 to provide a report on the Department of Defense's progress in addressing the issue of sexual assault, to include a review of the military justice system, by December 2014.
The Sexual Assault Prevention and Response Office (SAPRO) is responsible for oversight of the Department's sexual assault policy. SAPRO works hand-in-hand with the Services and the civilian community to develop and implement innovative prevention and response programs.
This National Sexual Violence Resource Center guide 'focuses on the impact of sexual violence in the military. It includes resources for advocates who, through relationships and collaborations with the military, can offer support in responding to the needs of survivors and preventing sexual violence.'
In London from June 10-3, 2014, the "End Sexual Violence in Conflict Summit" was attended by over 120 countries, 900 global experts, multilateral institutions, civil society organizations and the general public. An international Protocol was adopted.
The Office for Victims of Crime offers a two-day interactive training designed to help communities and military installations build partnerships to effectively respond to the needs of sexual assault victims in the military. The course examines military culture which has its own way of life--social structure, unique hierarchy, and its own laws.
The U.S. Commission on Civil Rights (USCCR) chose to focus on sexual assault in the U.S. military for its annual 2013 Statutory Enforcement Report. This report examines how the Department of Defense and its Armed Services—the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, and Air Force (the Services)—respond to Service members who report having been sexually assaulted (“victims”) and how it investigates and disciplines Service members accused of perpetrating sexual assault (“perpetrators”).
This summary sheet developed by Protect Our Defenders answers common questions about Military Sexual Assault (MSA), sexual harassment and the military justice system's role in sexual assault prevention and response.
Sarah L. Blum, ARNP and author of "Women Under Fire: Abuse in the Military," is a decorated nurse Vietnam veteran who served as an operating room nurse at the 12th Evacuation Hospital Cu Chi, Vietnam during the height of the fighting in 1967.